The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced accumulation of damage to cellular macromolecules is a primary driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan. Although this theory is one of the most popular explanations for the cause of aging, several experimental rodent models of antioxidant manipulation have failed to affect lifespan. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation clinical trials have been largely disappointing. The mitochondrial theory of aging specifies more particularly that mitochondria are both the primary sources of ROS and the primary targets of ROS damage. In addition to effects on lifespan and aging, mitochondrial ROS have been shown to play a central role in healthspan of many vital organ systems. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in aging and healthspan, including cardiac aging, age-dependent cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle aging, neurodegenerative diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes as well as age-related cancers. The crosstalk of mitochondrial ROS, redox, and other cellular signaling is briefly presented. Potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and healthspan are reviewed, with a focus on mitochondrial protective drugs, such as the mitochondrial antioxidants MitoQ, SkQ1, and the mitochondrial protective peptide SS-31. (more)
MitoQ is being evaluated by researchers around the world for its effect on mitochondria and on conditions that are related to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Over 200 health conditions are now known to be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we have listed some of the more important papers that have been published in independent peer reviewed journals as this significant body of work expands and we learn the importance of mitochondrial function for optimal cell health. For a more extensive listing of research on MitoQ please visit pubmed.org and search for MitoQ.
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Latest Published Research on MitoQ
MitoQ reduced intracellular ROS production within megakaryocytes and platelets. It also normalized mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production in platelets in irradiated, IEX-1 deficient mice. The lineage-specific effects of mitochondrial ROS may help us understand the etiology of thrombocytopenia in association with MDS in a subgroup of the patients .. (more)
The mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ ameliorates metabolic syndrome features in obesogenic diet-fed rats better than Apocynin or Allopurinol
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hepatic steatosis is rapidly increasing in wealthy societies. It is accepted that inflammation/oxidative stress are involved in the initiation/evolution of the MetS features. The present work was designed to evaluate the effects of three major cellular ROS production systems on obesity, glucose tolerance, and hepatic steatosis development and on oxidative stress onset .. (more)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious clinical condition with no effective treatment. Tubular cells are key targets in AKI. Tubular cells and, specifically, proximal tubular cells are extremely rich in mitochondria and mitochondrial changes had long been known to be a feature of AKI. However, only recent advances in understanding the molecules involved in mitochondria biogenesis and dynamics and the availability of mitochondria-targeted drugs has allowed the exploration of the specific role of mitochondria in AKI .. (more)
A mitochondrial-targeted coenzyme q analog prevents weight gain and ameliorates hepatic dysfunction in high-fat-fed mice.
We hypothesized that the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, mitoquinone (mitoQ), known to have mitochondrial uncoupling properties, might prevent the development of obesity and mitigate liver dysfunction by increasing energy expenditure, as opposed to reducing energy intake. We administered mitoQ or vehicle (ethanol) to obesity-prone C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat (HF) or normal-fat (NF) diets. MitoQ (500 µM) or vehicle (ethanol) was added to the drinking water for 28 weeks. MitoQ significantly reduced total body mass and fat mass ... (more)
Prevention of diabetic nephropathy in Ins2(+/)⁻(AkitaJ) mice by the mitochondria-targeted therapy MitoQ
Mitochondrial production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) is thought to be associated with the cellular damage resulting from chronic exposure to high glucose in long-term diabetic patients. We hypothesized that a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant would prevent kidney damage in the Ins2(+/)⁻(AkitaJ) mouse model (Akita mice) of Type 1 diabetes. To test this we orally administered a mitochondria-targeted ubiquinone (MitoQ) over a 12-week period and assessed tubular and glomerular function. Fibrosis and pro-fibrotic signalling pathways were determined by immunohistochemical analysis, and mitochondria were isolated from the kidney for functional assessment. MitoQ treatment improved tubular and glomerular function in the Ins2(+/)⁻(AkitaJ) mice. MitoQ did not have a significant effect on plasma creatinine levels, but decreased urinary albumin levels to the same level as non-diabetic controls. Consistent with previous studies, renal mitochondrial function showed no significant change between any of the diabetic or wild-type groups. Importantly, interstitial fibrosis and glomerular damage were significantly reduced in the treated animals. The pro-fibrotic transcription factors phospho-Smad2/3 and β-catenin showed a nuclear accumulation in the Ins2(+/)⁻(AkitaJ) mice, which was prevented by MitoQ treatment. These results support the hypothesis that mitochondrially targeted therapies may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. They also highlight a relatively unexplored aspect of mitochondrial ROS signalling in the control of fibrosis. (more)
Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (MitoQ) ameliorates age-related arterial endothelial dysfunction in mice.
Age-related arterial endothelial dysfunction, a key antecedent to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is largely due to a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability as a consequence of oxidative stress. Mitochondria are a major source and target of vascular oxidative stress when dysregulated. Mitochondrial dysregulation is associated with primary aging, but its role in age-related endothelial dysfunction is unknown. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, for ameliorating vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice. The improvements in endothelial function with MitoQ supplementation were associated with normalization of age-related increases in total and mitochondria-derived arterial superoxide production and oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine abundance), as well as increases in markers of vascular mitochondrial health, including antioxidant status. MitoQ also reversed the age-related increase in endothelial susceptibility to acute mitochondrial damage (rotenone-induced impairment in EDD). Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying the development of endothelial dysfunction with primary aging. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as MitoQ represent a promising, novel strategy for preserving vascular endothelial function with advancing age and preventing age-related CVD. (more)
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gulf War Illness Revealed by 31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case-Control Study
Approximately 1/3 of 1990-1 Gulf War veterans developed chronic multisymptom health problems. Implicated exposures bear mechanisms that adversely affect mitochondria. Symptoms emphasize fatigue, cognition and muscle (brain and muscle are aerobically demanding); with protean additional domains affected, compatible with mitochondrial impairment. Recent evidence supports treatments targeting cell bioenergetics (coenzyme10) to benefit Gulf War illness symptoms. However, no evidence has directly documented mitochondrial or bioenergetic impairment in Gulf War illness. (more)
Neuroprotective effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in a model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor neuron degeneration that ultimately results in progressive paralysis and death. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. To further explore the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction and nitroxidative stress contribute to disease pathogenesis at the in vivo level, we assessed whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)decyl]triphenylphosphonium methane sulfonate (MitoQ) can modify disease progression in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. To do this, we administered MitoQ (500 µM) in the drinking water of SOD1G93A mice from a time when early symptoms of neurodegeneration become evident at 90 days of age until death. This regime is a clinically plausible scenario and could be more easily translated to patients as this corresponds to initiating treatment of patients after they are first diagnosed with ALS. MitoQ was detected in all tested tissues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after 20 days of administration. MitoQ treatment slowed the decline of mitochondrial function, in both the spinal cord and the quadriceps muscle, as measured by high-resolution respirometry. Importantly, nitroxidative markers and pathological signs in the spinal cord of MitoQ-treated animals were markedly reduced and neuromuscular junctions were recovered associated with a significant increase in hindlimb strength. Finally, MitoQ treatment significantly prolonged the life span of SOD1G93A mice. Our results support a role for mitochondrial nitroxidative damage and dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ALS and suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be of pharmacological use for ALS treatment. (more)
The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ extends lifespan and improves healthspan of a transgenic C. elegans models of Alzheimer disease
Beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity and oxidative stress have been postulated to play critical roles in the pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated the in vivo ability of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, to protect against Aβ-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in a Caenorhabditis elegans model overexpressing human Aβ. Impairment of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymatic activity and mitochondrial dysfunction are early features of AD. We show that MitoQ extends lifespan, delays Aβ-induced paralysis, ameliorates depletion of the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin and protects complex IV and I of the ETC. Despite its protective effect on lifespan, healthspan and ETC function, we find that MitoQ does not reduce DCFDA fluorescence, protein carbonyl levels or modulate steady state ATP levels or oxygen consumption rate. Moreover, MitoQ does not attenuate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidative damage. In agreement with its design, the protective effects of MitoQ appear to be targeted specifically to the mitochondrial membrane and our findings suggest that MitoQ may have therapeutic potential for Aβ- and oxidative stress-associated neurodegenerative disorders, particularly AD. (more)