RESEARCH STUDIES & CLINICAL TRIALS

With over 600 published studies, we can let the science speak for itself

INDEPENDENT RESEARCH

We encourage a broad range of scientific research. Over $60 million has been invested in independent studies exploring the advanced benefits of MitoQ.

GLOBAL RECOGNITION

Leading institutions around the world have studied MitoQ’s cellular health optimization in over 600 peer-reviewed scientific papers and 14 clinical trials to date.

CONTINUED INNOVATION

Our product development team continues to explore the leading edge of cellular health science, resulting in over 60 global patents for our molecular technology.

Highlighted studies

HEART

Chronic supplementation with a mitochondrial antioxidant (MitoQ) improves vascular function in healthy older adults

Rossman MJ et al. Hypertension. 2018;71:1056-1063.

DOI: DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10787 source

MitoQ decreases free radical production by mitochondria, and significantly supports arterial function in older adults and therefore the health of the arteries. In the clinical trial it was validated that: MitoQ greatly improved the ability of arteries to dilate (by 42%), MitoQ significantly supports the health of aorta & MitoQ significantly fights oxidative Stress.

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EXERCISE

Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Supplementation Improves 8km Time Trial Performance in Middle-Aged Trained Male Cyclist

Broome SC et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 18, 58 (2021).

DOI: DOI: 10.1186/s12970-021-00454-0 source

The study showed that after 4 weeks of MitoQ supplementation, the mean completion time for a time trial was 1.3% faster and an increase of 10 watts of power. MitoQ supplementation may be an effective nutritional strategy to attenuate exercise-induced increases in oxidative damage to lipids and improve cycling performance.

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SAFETY

The influence of acute high dose MitoQ on urinary kidney injury markers in healthy adults

Linder BA et al. The FASEB Journal (volume 36, issue S1).

DOI: DOI: 10.1096/fasebj.2022.36.S1.L7715 source

Results found that acute, high-dose MitoQ supplementation did not result in high concentrations of kidney injury biomarkers compared to placebo samples. Preliminary evidence is that ongoing MitoQ use in the normal range (10mg-20mg) is beneficial to kidney health.

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All studies

VASCULAR HEALTH (18)

Ritou E et al. 2020. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, Massachusetts. 8-11 March

Vasodilatory and vascular mitochondrial respiratory function with advancing age: Evidence of a free radically-mediated link in the human vasculature.. Park SH et al. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2020 Feb 5DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00268.2019

Pekas L et al. July 2020. Med Sci Sports Exerc 52(7S):902-902.DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000685352.94627.34

Sheak JR et al. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2020 Jan 20DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00629.2019

Effects of treadmill exercise and MitoQ treatment on vascular function in D-galactose-induced aging rat.. Kim D et al. Korean Journal of Sport Science. 2019, Vol. 30. No.4689-699DOI: 10.24985/kjss.201930.4.689

Chronic supplementation with a mitochondrial antioxidant (MitoQ) improves vascular function in healthy older adults. Rossman MJ et al. Hypertension. 2018;71:1056-1063DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10787

Suresh K et al. 2018. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular PhysiologyDOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00430.2017

Pak O et al. European Respiratory Journal. 2018. pii: 1701024DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01024-2017

Age-related endothelial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: The role of free radicals derived from mitochondria in the vasculature. Park SY et al. Acta Physiologica . 2018; 222(1)DOI: 10.1111/apha.12893

Gioscia-Ryan RA et al. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2017: jap006702017DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00670.2017

Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice. Gioscia-Ryan RA et al. Aging (Albany NY). 2016;8(11):2897-2914DOI: 10.18632/aging.101099

Scheibe S et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 96:S50 2016DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.04.106

Gioscia-Ryan RA et al. The Journal of Physiology. 2014; 592(Pt 12): 2549–2561DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.268680

Ma S et al. Am J Hypertension. 2014;27(3):345-54DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpt225

Redox signalling via oxidative inactivation of PTEN modulates pressure-dependent myogenic tone in rat middle cerebral arteries. Gebremedhin D et al. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e68498DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068498

Mackenzie RM et al. Clinical Science (London, England 1979). 2013; 124(Pt 6): 403–411DOI: 10.1042/CS20120239

Evidence for a relationship between mitochondrial complex I activity and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase during nitroglycerin tolerance: Effects of mitochondrial antioxidants. Garcia-Bou R et al. Biochim Biophys Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics. 2012;1817(5):828-37DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.02.013

Esplugues JV et al. Circulation Resarch. 2006;99(10):1067-75DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000250430.62775.99

CARDIAC HEALTH (24)

Jiang Z et al. Scientific Reports. 2020DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63498-3

Kim S et al. American Journal Physiology- Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2020 Jan 31DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00617.2019

Gallardo et al. European Heart Journal. 2019DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz746.0882

Suresh K et al. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 2019DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00396.2018

Goh KY et al. Redox Biology. 2019. Vol 21, 101100DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101100

Wang H et al. Translational Research. 2018. pii: S1931-5244(18)30070-7DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2018.04.005

Ribeiro Junior RF et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018; 117:18-29DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.01.012

Ice-free cryopreservation of heart valve tissue: The effect of adding MitoQ to a VS83 formulation and its influence on mitochondrial dynamics. Sui Y et al. Cryobiology. 2018. pii: S0011-2240(17)30599-0DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2018.01.008

Scheibe S et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Vol 108, Suppl. 1, July 2017, S74DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.04.250

Yong Goh K et al. Federation of American Societies For Experimental Biology Journal. 2017;31:1 supplement, 59.7-59.7DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00638.2014

An antioxidant to attenuate aoritc aging. Hine C. Science Translational Medicine. 2017;9(416):eaaq1235DOI: 10.11.1126/scitranslmed.aaq1235

Dare AJ et al. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 2015; 34(11): 1471–1480DOI: 10.1016/j.healun.2015.05.007

Hannson MJ et al. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015;760: 7-19DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.04.009

Yancey DM et al. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2015;308(6): H651-63DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00638.2014

McLachlan J et al. Journal of Hypertension. 2014; 32(3): 555–564DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000054

Ondrasik R et al. Peptides Across the Pacific: The Proceedings of the Twenty-Third American and the Sixth International Peptide Symposium. Prompt Scientific Publishing. 2013DOI: 10.17952/23APS.2013.064

Neuzil J et al. Redox Report. 2013; 12:3, 148-162DOI: 10.1179/135100007X200227

O’Connell KA et al. Federation of American Societies For Experimental Biology Journal. 2012; 26:1 (suppl), 887.16

Davidson SM et al. Cardiovascular Research. 2012;93(3):445-53DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvr349

Fen Pung Y et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2012; 32(2): 325–334DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.241802

Gladden JD et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2011;51(11):1975-84DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.08.022

Chandran K et al. Biophysical Journal. 2009; 96(4): 1388–1398DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2008.10.042

Graham D et al. Hypertension. 2009;54: 322-328DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.130351

Adlam VJ et al. Federation of American Societies For Experimental Biology Journal. 2005;19(9):1088-95DOI: 10.1096/fj.05-3718com

BRAIN AND NEUROLOGICAL HEALTH (84)

Xing et al 2020. Neurodegenerative Diseases. 2020 May 15;1-13.DOI: 10.1159/00507023

Chen X et al. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2020 May.DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110003

Teo E et al. Translational Medicine of Aging. 2020.DOI: 10.1016/j.tma.2019.12.002

Coppa A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2020 Feb 1.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.177

Salvi A et al. Neurobiology of Stress. 2020.DOI: 10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100205

Li Y et al. International Journal od Neuroscience. 2020 Jan 14:1-12.DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2020.1715978

Chen W et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2020.DOI: 10.1155/2020/8285065

Ünal I et al. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2019 Nov 26:1-14.DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1698567

Pinho BR et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2019 Nov 18.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.11.021

Young ML et al. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. 2019.DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2019.103409

Zhang T et al. Stroke. 2019.DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021590

Zhang et al. Experimental Neurology. 2019.DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.02.009

Kim YR et al. Redox Biology. 2019; 20:544-555.DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.11.013

Pinho BR et al. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2018;A91-A92.DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2018-EHDN.246

Hwang S et al. Chonnam Medical Journal. 2018; 54(3): 159–166.DOI: 10.4068/cmj.2018.54.3.159

Zhou J et al. American Journal of Translational Research. 2018;10(6):1887-1899. eCollection 2018.

Xi Y et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2018; pii: S0925-4439(18)30188-1.DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.05.018

Marcuzzi A et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018, 19(5), 1523.DOI: 10.3390/ijms19051523

Maiti AK et al. Biogerontology. 2018.DOI: 10.1007/s10522-018-9756-6

Jelinek A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018; 117:45-57.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.01.019

Gan L et al. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2018;341:1-7.DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.01.003

Stucki DM et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2016; 97:427-440.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.07.005

Johnson C et al. August 10, 2016. Mendus.org.DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2329.8805

Nussbaumer M et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41(7):1751-8.DOI: 10.1038/npp.2015.341

Yin X et al. Human Molecular Genetics. 2016;25(9):1739-53.DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddw045

Mitochondrial redox and pH signalling occurs in axonal and synaptic organelle clusters.. Breckwoldt MO et al. Scientific Reports. 2016;22(6):23251.DOI: 10.1038/srep23251

Manus MJ et al. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2014; 63:13-23.DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2014.09.002

The LRRK2 inhibitor GSK2578215A induces protective autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells: Involvement of Drp-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial-derived ROS signalling.. Saez-Atienzar S et al. Cell Death & Disease. 2014; 5(8): e1368.DOI: 10.1038/cddis.2014.320

Ng LF et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2014;71:390-401.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.03.003

Miquel E et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 201;70:204-13.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.02.019

Mao P et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2013; 1832(12)DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.09.005

Davies Al et al. Annals of Neurology. 2013;74(6):815-25.DOI: 10.1002/ana.24006

Solesio ME et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2013;1832(1):174-82.DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.07.009

Ma T et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012; 32(40): 13701–13708.DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2107-12.2012

McManus MJ et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011; 31(44): 15703–15715.DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0552-11.2011

Ma T et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011; 31(15): 5589–5595.DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6566-10.2011

Snow BJ et al. Movement Disorder. 2010; 25(11):1670-4.DOI: 10.1002/mds.23148

Ghosh A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2010; 49(11): 1674–1684.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.08.028

Manczak M et al. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2010; 20(Suppl 2): S609–S631.DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2010-100564

Cassina P et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2008; 28(16): 4115–4122.DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5308-07.2008

Pehar M et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2007;27(29):7777-85.DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0823-07.2007

Manganese potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of NOS2 in C6 glioma cells through mitochondrial-dependent activation of nuclear factor kappaB.. Barhoumi R et al. Molecular Brain Research. 2004;122(2):167-79.DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.12.009

Xing et al 2020. Neurodegenerative Diseases. 2020 May 15;1-13DOI: 10.1159/00507023

Chen X et al. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2020 MayDOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110003

Teo E et al. Translational Medicine of Aging. 2020DOI: 10.1016/j.tma.2019.12.002

Coppa A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2020 Feb 1DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.177

Salvi A et al. Neurobiology of Stress. 2020DOI: 10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100205

Li Y et al. International Journal od Neuroscience. 2020 Jan 14:1-12DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2020.1715978

Chen W et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2020DOI: 10.1155/2020/8285065

Ünal I et al. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2019 Nov 26:1-14DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1698567

Pinho BR et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2019 Nov 18DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.11.021

Young ML et al. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. 2019DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2019.103409

Zhang T et al. Stroke. 2019DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021590

Zhang et al. Experimental Neurology. 2019DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.02.009

Kim YR et al. Redox Biology. 2019; 20:544-555DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.11.013

Pinho BR et al. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2018;A91-A92DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2018-EHDN.246

Hwang S et al. Chonnam Medical Journal. 2018; 54(3): 159–166DOI: 10.4068/cmj.2018.54.3.159

Zhou J et al. American Journal of Translational Research. 2018;10(6):1887-1899. eCollection 2018

Xi Y et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2018; pii: S0925-4439(18)30188-1DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.05.018

Marcuzzi A et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018, 19(5), 1523DOI: 10.3390/ijms19051523

Maiti AK et al. Biogerontology. 2018DOI: 10.1007/s10522-018-9756-6

Jelinek A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018; 117:45-57DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.01.019

Gan L et al. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2018;341:1-7DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.01.003

Stucki DM et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2016; 97:427-440DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.07.005

Johnson C et al. August 10, 2016. Mendus.orgDOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2329.8805

Nussbaumer M et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41(7):1751-8DOI: 10.1038/npp.2015.341

Yin X et al. Human Molecular Genetics. 2016;25(9):1739-53DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddw045

Mitochondrial redox and pH signalling occurs in axonal and synaptic organelle clusters. Breckwoldt MO et al. Scientific Reports. 2016;22(6):23251DOI: 10.1038/srep23251

Manus MJ et al. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2014; 63:13-23DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2014.09.002

The LRRK2 inhibitor GSK2578215A induces protective autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells: Involvement of Drp-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial-derived ROS signalling. Saez-Atienzar S et al. Cell Death & Disease. 2014; 5(8): e1368DOI: 10.1038/cddis.2014.320

Ng LF et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2014;71:390-401DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.03.003

Miquel E et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 201;70:204-13DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.02.019

Mao P et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2013; 1832(12)DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.09.005

Davies Al et al. Annals of Neurology. 2013;74(6):815-25DOI: 10.1002/ana.24006

Solesio ME et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2013;1832(1):174-82DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.07.009

Ma T et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012; 32(40): 13701–13708DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2107-12.2012

McManus MJ et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011; 31(44): 15703–15715DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0552-11.2011

Ma T et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011; 31(15): 5589–5595DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6566-10.2011

Snow BJ et al. Movement Disorder. 2010; 25(11):1670-4DOI: 10.1002/mds.23148

Ghosh A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2010; 49(11): 1674–1684DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.08.028

Manczak M et al. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2010; 20(Suppl 2): S609–S631DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2010-100564

Cassina P et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2008; 28(16): 4115–4122DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5308-07.2008

Pehar M et al. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2007;27(29):7777-85DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0823-07.2007

Manganese potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of NOS2 in C6 glioma cells through mitochondrial-dependent activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Barhoumi R et al. Molecular Brain Research. 2004;122(2):167-79DOI: 10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.12.009

LIVER HEALTH (34)

Hao L et al. Redox Biology. 2018;14: 626-636DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.11.005

Weiskirchen R. Liver International. 2017;37(7):963-965DOI: 10.1111/liv.13442

Vilaseca M et al. Liver International. 2017;37(7):1002-1012DOI: 10.1111/liv.13436

Hoyt LR et al. Redox Biology. 2017; 12: 883–896DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.04.020

Rehman H et al. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 2016; 8(1): 14–27

Mukhopadhyay P et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2012;53(5):1123–1138DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.036

Chacko BK et al. Hepatology. 2011; 54(1): 153–163DOI: 10.1002/hep.24377

Gane EJ et al. Liver International. 2010;30(7):1019-26DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02250.x

Froehlich E et al. J Hepatol. 44: S267-S267. 41st Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver; APR 26-30, 2006; Vienna, AUSTRIA. [Poster]

Davies A et al. Journal of Hepatology. 2002;36(1):195-196DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8278(02)80692-4

Desta YT et al. International Immunopharmacology. 2020 May 4;84:106518.DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106518

Wu Y et al. International Immunopharmacology. 2020 Jan 10;80:106189.DOI: 10/1016/j.intimp.2020.106189

Sen Roy S et al. HIV Medicine. 2019;20:201-231.DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12814

Turkseven et al. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2019 Dec 9.DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00135.2019

Li G et al. Nutrients. 2019, 11, 1669.DOI: 10.3390/nu11071669

van Golen RF et al. Biochimica Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. 2019;pii: S0925-4439(19)30014-6.DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.01.014

Turkseven S et al. Journal of Hepatology. 2018; 68:S466-S467.DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8278(18)31178-4

Hao L et al. Redox Biology. 2018;14: 626-636.DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.11.005

Weiskirchen R. Liver International. 2017;37(7):963-965.DOI: 10.1111/liv.13442

Vilaseca M et al. Liver International. 2017;37(7):1002-1012.DOI: 10.1111/liv.13436

Hoyt LR et al. Redox Biology. 2017; 12: 883–896.DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.04.020

Rehman H et al. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 2016; 8(1): 14–27.

Mukhopadhyay P et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2012;53(5):1123–1138.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.036

Chacko BK et al. Hepatology. 2011; 54(1): 153–163.DOI: 10.1002/hep.24377

Gane EJ et al. Liver International. 2010;30(7):1019-26.DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02250.x

Froehlich E et al. J Hepatol. 44: S267-S267. 41st Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver; APR 26-30, 2006; Vienna, AUSTRIA.

Davies A et al. Journal of Hepatology. 2002;36(1):195-196.DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8278(02)80692-4

Desta YT et al. International Immunopharmacology. 2020 May 4;84:106518DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106518

Wu Y et al. International Immunopharmacology. 2020 Jan 10;80:106189DOI: 10/1016/j.intimp.2020.106189

Sen Roy S et al. HIV Medicine. 2019;20:201-231DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12814

Turkseven et al. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2019 Dec 9DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00135.2019

Li G et al. Nutrients. 2019, 11, 1669DOI: 10.3390/nu11071669

van Golen RF et al. Biochimica Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. 2019;pii: S0925-4439(19)30014-6DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.01.014

Turkseven S et al. Journal of Hepatology. 2018; 68:S466-S467DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8278(18)31178-4

KIDNEY (36)

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Reily C. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2014; 49:S40DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.10.083

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Galaretta CI et al. American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology. 2015;308(10): F1155-66.DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00591.2014

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Reily C. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2014; 49:S40.DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.10.083

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Fink B et al. Free Radical Research. 2020 Apr 24:1-8DOI: 10.1080/10715762.2020.1754409

Walenna NF et al. Journal Biological Chemistry. 2020 Jan 28DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.010683

Marin-Royo G et al. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2019DOI: 10.1096/fj.201900347RR

Mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants alters pancreatic acinar cell bioenergetics and determines cell fate. Armstrong JA et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019;20(7), 1700DOI: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/7/1700

Escribano-Lopez I et al. Cellular Physiology & Biochemistry. 2019;52(2):186-197DOI: 10.33594/000000013

The impact of age and sex on body composition and glucose sensitivity in C57Bl/6J mice. Reynolds TH et al. Physiological Reports. 2019;7(3):e13995DOI: 10.14814/phy2.13995

Imai Y et al. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives. 2018;6(3):e00393DOI: 10.1002/prp2.393

Escribano-López I et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018;120(1): S79-S80DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.04.263

Ju L et al. Oncotarget. 2017; 8(59): 99931–99939DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.21965

Fink BD et al. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives. 2017;5(2): e00301DOI: 10.1002/prp2.301

Escribano-Lopez et al. Redox Biology. 2016; 10: 200–205DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2016.10.017

Coudray C et al. British Journal of Nutrition. 2016; 115(7):1155-66DOI: 10.1017/S0007114515005528

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Huang W et al. Mediators of Inflammation. 2015: 901780DOI: 10.1155/2015/901780

Fink BD et al. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2014; 351(3): 699–708DOI: 10.1124/jpet.114.219329

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Wang Q et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(6): e66417DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066417

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MUSCULOSKELETAL HEALTH AND EXERCISE (14)

MitoQ and CoQ10 supplementation mildly suppresses skeletal muscle mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels without impacting mitochondrial function in middle-aged men. Pham T et al. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2020 May 26DOI: 10.1007/s00421-020-04396-4

Targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) to combat the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Thoma A et al. Biogeronology. 2020 May 23DOI: 10.1007/s10522-020-09838-x

Kang L et al. Cell Proliferation. 2020 Feb 5;e12779DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12779

Myocardial NADPH oxidase-4 regulates the physiological response to acute exercise. Hancock M et al. Elife. 2018;7. pii: e41044DOI: 10.7554/eLife.41044

MitoQ supplementation improves leg-extension power in healthy late middle-aged and older adults. Bispham NZ et al. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2017; 31 (1) (suppl) abs. lb852

Farnaghi S et al. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2017;31(1):356-367DOI: 10.1096/fj.201600600R

Mitochondria‐specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training‐induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake. Shill DD et al. J Physiol. 2016; 594(23): 7005–7014DOI: 10.1113/JP272491

Sakellariou GK et al. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2016; 30(11): 3771–3785DOI: 10.1096/fj.201600450R

MitoQ supplementation improves motor function and muscle mitochondrial health in old male mice. Justice JN et al. Gerontologist 2015;55(2):163DOI: doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnv535.02

Patková J et al. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2014;33(5):1439-51DOI: 10.1159/000358709

Mechanical stress and ATP synthesis are coupled by mitochondrial oxidants in articular cartilage. Wolff KJ et al. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 2013; 31(2): 191–196DOI: 10.1002/jor.22223

Mitochondrial electron transport and glycolysis are coupled in articular cartilage. Martin AJ et al. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2012; 20(4): 323–329DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.01.003

MitoQ10 induces adipogenesis and oxidative metabolism in myotube cultures. Nierobisz LS et al. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2011;158(2):125-31DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2010.10.003

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SKIN HEALTH (9)

Victorelli S et al. The EMBO Journal. 2019DOI: 10.15252/embj.2019101982

Tamer TM et al. Materials (Basel). 2018;11(4). pii: E569DOI: 10.3390/ma11040569

Protective effect of mitochondrially targeted antioxidant MitoQ on oxidatively stressed fibroblasts. Valachová K et al. L. Chemical Paper. 2018 72: 1223DOI: 10.1007/s11696-017-0359-5

Anti-aging potentials of methylene blue for human skin longevity. Xiong Z-M et al. Scientific Reports. 2017 May. 7; 24DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-02419-3

Oyewole AO et al. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2014;28(1):485-94DOI: 10.1096/fj.13-237008

Collagen fragmentation promotes oxidative stress and elevates matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts in aged human skin. Fisher GJ et al. The American Journal of Pathology. 2009; 174(1): 101–114DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080599

Cellular response to infrared radiation involves retrograde mitochondrial signalling. Schroeder P et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2007;43(1):128-35DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.04.002

7-Dehydrocholesterol enhances ultraviolet A-induced oxidative stress in keratinocytes: Roles of NADPH oxidase, mitochondria and lipid rafts. Valencia A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2006; 41(11): 1704–1718DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.09.006

MitoQ counteracts telomere shortening and elongates lifespan of fibroblasts under mild oxidative stress. Saretzki G et al. Aging Cell. 2003;2(2):141-3DOI: 10.1046/j.1474-9728.2003.00040.x

IMMUNOLOGY (33)

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An investigation of the effects of MitoQ on human peripheral mononuclear cells. Marthandan S et al. Free Radical Research.. 2011;45(3):351-8DOI: 10.3109/10715762.2010.532497

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Wiens KE et al. PLoS Pathogens. 2016;12(8):e1005809DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005809

Spadoni T et al. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2016;75(2):521.2-521 2016 JulDOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-eular.3908

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Keck F et al. Virulence. 2018DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2018.1509668

Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ prevents E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced accumulation of triacylglycerol and lipid droplets biogenesis in epithelial cells. Fock E et al. Journal of Lipids. 2018;5745790DOI: 10.1155/2018/5745790

Budd R et al. Lupus Science & Medicine. 2019;6DOI: 10.1136/lupus-2019-lsm.38

Keck F et al. Viruses. 2018;10(11). pii: E606DOI: 10.3390/v10110606

Zhang et al. Mediators of Inflammation. 2020DOI: 10.1155/2020/3276148

The reduced oligomerization of MAVS mediated by ROS enhances the cellular radioresistance. Du et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2020 March 4DOI: 10.1155/2020/2167129

Sen Roy S et al. HIV Medicine. 2019;20. 231-231DOI: 10.1111/hiv.128.14

Fortner et al. Lupus Science & Medicine. 2020;7:e000387DOI: 10.1136/lupus-2020-000387

Tissue-resident macrophages actively suppress IL-1beta release via a reactive prostanoid/IL-10 pathway. Ipseiz N et al. The EMBO Journal. 2020 June 2DOI: 10.15252/embj.2019103454

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GENETIC HEALTH (8)

Migrino RQ et al. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2011;301(6):H2305-12DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00503.2011

Misfolding of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase leads to mitochondrial fission and oxidative stress. Schmidt SP et al. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 2010;100(2):155-62DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.03.009

Jauslin ML et al. The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2003;17(13):1972-4DOI: 10.1096/fj.03-0240fje

Bhattacharjee A et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2016; 291(32): 16644–16658DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M116.727248

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Gallego-Villar L et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2014;452(3):457-61DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.08.091

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EYE HEALTH (5)

Vlachantoni D et al. Human Molecular Genetics. 2011; 20(2):322-35DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddq467

Mustapha NM et al. Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010; 2010: 746978DOI: 10.1155/2010/746978

Vlachantoni D et al. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2006;47(13):5773

Zheng Q et al. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2020 May 23DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2020.125621

Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants attenuate TGF-β2 signaling in human trabecular meshwork cells. Rao VR et al. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2019;60:3613-3624DOI: 10.1167/iovs.19-27542

LUNG HEALTH (4)

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Li R et al. BioMed Research International. 2019DOI: 10.1155/2019/524898

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REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGY (19)

Hobbs CE et al. Pediatrics International. 2008; 50(4): 481-8DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2008.02705.x

Botting KJ et al. 2016. Proceedings of the Physical Society (1985-1967), PCB334 (2016)

Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone protects post-thaw human sperm against oxidative stress injury. Liu L et al. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2016;22(3):205-11

Skeffington K et al. Aug 2015. Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Society 42nd Annual meeting: Vancouver

Inhibition of ROS production through mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and mitochondrial uncoupling increases post-thaw sperm viability in yellow catfish. Fang L et al. Cryobiology. 2014;69(3):386-93DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.09.005

Aljunaidy MM et al. Pharmacological Research.;134:332-342DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.05.006

Sukjamnong S et al. Scientific Reports. 2018; 8: 6631DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-24949-0

Phillips TJ et al. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1):9079DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06300-1

Sukjamnong S et al. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 2017;313(2): L416-L423DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00134.2017

Ding Y et al. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2018 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print]DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2018.3977

Nuzzo AM et al. The American Journal of Pathology. 2018 Sep 21. pii: S0002-9440(18)30019-1DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.07.027

Vaka VR et al. Hypertension. 2018 Jul 16. piiDOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.11290

Ganguly E et al. Frontiers in Physiology. 2019 May 24DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00562

Exposing mouse oocytes to MitoQ during in vitro maturation improves maturation and developmental competence. Hosseinzadeh Shirzeyli M et al. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 2019

Zhang J et al. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2019 Mar 2. pii: S0041-008X(19)30075-4DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2019.03.001

Autophagy regulates functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. Elswood J et al. Autophagy. 2020DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1720427

Marei W et al. Human Reproduction. 2019DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dez161

Ibrahim AA et al. Life Sciences. 2019 Jul 12DOI: 10/1016/j.lfs.2019.116655

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TOXICITY SUPPORT (15)

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Vergeade A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2010;49(5):748-56DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.05.024

Consequences of long-term oral administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ to wild-type mice. Rodriguez-Cuenca S et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2010;48(1):161-72DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.10.039

Whiteman M et al. Antioxidant & Redox Signaling. 2008;10(3):641-50DOI: 10.1089/ars.2007.1879

Mukhopadhyay P et al. Free Radical and Medicine. 2012;52(2): 497–506DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.11.001

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REDOX BIOLOGY (31)

Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 from the matrix side. Studies using targeted antioxidants. Echtay KS et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2002;277(49):47129-35DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M208262200

Mitochondrial redox state regulates transcription of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein manganese superoxide dismutase: A proposed adaptive response to mitochondrial  redox imbalance. Kim A et al. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2005;38(5):644-54DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.10.030

Dhanasekaran A et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2004;279(36):37575-87DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M404003200

Schäfer M et al. Circulation Research. 2003;92(9):1010-5DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000070882.81508.FC

Redox regulation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and induction of manganous superoxide dismutase in nerve growth factor-dependent cell survival. Bedogni B et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003;278(19):16510-9DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M301089200

Interactions of mitochondria-targeted and untargeted ubiquinones with the mitochondrial respiratory chain and reactive oxygen species. Implications for the use of exogenous ubiquinones as therapies and experimental tools. James AM et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005;280(22):21295-312DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M501527200

A targeted antioxidant reveals the importance of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the hypoxic signalling of HIF-1alpha. Sanjuán-Pla A et al. FEBS Letters. 2005;579(12):2669-74DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.03.088

Protective role of MnSOD and redox regulation of neuronal cell survival. Galeotti T et al. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2005;59(4):197-203DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2005.03.002

OxLDL enhances L-type Ca2+ currents via lysophosphatidylcholine-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fearon IM. Cardiovascular Research. 2006;69(4):855-64DOI: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.11.019

Pletjushkina OY et al. Biochemistry (Moscow). 2006;71(1):60-7DOI: 10.1134/S0006297906010093

Long-distance apoptotic killing of cells is mediated by hydrogen peroxide in a mitochondrial ROS-dependent fashion. Pletjushkina OY et al. Cell Death & Differentiation. 2005;12:1442–1444DOI: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401685

Koopman WJ et al. Cellular Metabolism. 2005;288(6):C1440-50DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00607.2004

Respiratory chain deficiency slows down cell-cycle progression via reduced ROS generation and is associated with a reduction of p21CIP1/WAF1. Schauen M et al. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2006;209(1):103-12DOI: 10.1002/jcp.20711

Production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria of HeLa cells under oxidative stress. Chernyak BV et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Bioenergetics . 2006;1757(5-6):525-34DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2006.02.019

Flow dilation in rat small mesenteric arteries is mediated by hydrogen peroxide generated from CYP epoxygenases and xanthine oxidase. Ngai CY. The Open Circulation and Vascular Journal. 2009 Apr. 2(1):15-22DOI: 10.2174/1877382600902010015

Doughan AK et al. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2007; 9(11):1825-36DOI: 10.1089/ars.2007.1693

Reactive oxygen and targeted antioxidant administration in endothelial cell mitochondria. O'Malley Y et al. Journal of Biological Chemsitry. 2006;281(52):39766-75DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M608268200

TNFα-induced lysosomal membrane permeability is downstream of MOMP and triggered by caspase-mediated NDUFS1 cleavage and ROS formation. Huai J et al. Journal of Cell Science. 2013;126(Pt 17):4015-25DOI: 10.1242/jcs.129999

Mitochondrial H2O2 generated from electron transport chain complex I stimulates muscle differentiation. Lee S et al. Cell Research. 2011;21(5):817-34DOI: 10.1038/cr.2011.55

Role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in osteoclast differentiation. Srinivasan S et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010; 1192(1): 245–252DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05377.x

Hämäläinen RH et al. Cell Reports. 2015; 11(10): 1614–1624DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.009

Huang W-Y et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e81546DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081546

Differential modulation of ROS signals and other mitochondrial parameters by the antioxidants MitoQ, resveratrol and curcumin in human adipocytes. Hirzel E et al. Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. 2013; 33(5):304-12DOI: 10.3109/10799893.2013.822887

Mitochondrial ROS-derived PTEN oxidation activates PI3K pathway for mTOR-induced myogenic autophagy. Kim JH et al. Cell Death and Differentiation. 2018 Jul 24DOI: 10.1038/s41418-018-0165-9

Mitochondria-targeted molecules determine the redness of the zebra finch bill. Cantarero A et al. Biology Letters. 2017;13(10). pii: 20170455DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2017.0455

Reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase 1 and mitochondria mediate angiotensin II-induced smooth muscle cell senescence. Tsai IC et al. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 2016;98:18-27DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2016.07.001

Ammonia sensitive SLC4A11 mitochondrial uncoupling reduces glutamine induced oxidative stress. Ogando DG et al. Redox Biology. 2019;26:101260DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101260

Redox-regulation and life-history trade offs: Scavenging mitochondrial ROS improves growth in a wild bird. Velando A et al. Scientific Reports. 2019;9(1)DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-3853335-5

Detection of 8-oxoguanine and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites using a fluorophore-labeled probe with cell-penetrating ability. Kang DM et al. BMC Molecular and Cell Biology. 2019 Nov 27;20(1):54DOI: 10.1186/s12860-019-236

A mitochondria-targeted antioxidant affects the carotenoid-based plumage of red crossbills. Cantarero A et al. bioRxiv. 2019DOI: 10.1101/839670

Olesen M et al. Redox Biology. 2020 May 5DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2020.101558

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REVIEWS, EDITORIALS AND LETTERS (6)

Targeting mitochondrial fitness as a strategy for healthy vascular aging. Rossman et al. Clin Sci (Lond). 2020 134 (12): 1491-1519DOI: 10.1042/CS20190559

Mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals in sports medicine: A new perspective. Ostojic SM. Res Sports Med. 2016;25(1):91-100DOI: 10.1080/15438627.2016.1258646

Have no fear, MitoQ10 is here. Barbato JC. Hypertension. 2009;54(2):222-3DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.135533

MitoQ- A mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. Tauskela JS et al. IDrugs. 2007;10(6):399-412

Animal and human studies with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ. Smith RA et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011;1201:96-103DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05627.x

The effect of MitoQ on aging-related biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Braakhuis A et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Volume 2018, Article ID 8575263DOI: 10.1155/2018/8575263