Every year, more and more people are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and billions of healthcare dollars go into managing this disease and its consequences.
An increase in free radical production and resulting oxidative stress are considered key factors in the development of diabetes. Current treatment options target reduced uptake of glucose by cells, increased production of glucose in the liver, or replacement of deficient insulin. None of which alter the actual disease course, although may reduce complications.
The need for new therapeutic approaches to treat this financially burdening disease is obvious. Previous studies have already highlighted protective pathways that alleviate damage from free radicals and involve vitamins B, C, D, K, coenzyme Q10, and specific enzymes important in cellular antioxidant defense. Now researchers are taking things one step further. This review, New Insights for Oxidative Stress and Diabetes Mellitus, discusses specific genes and signaling pathways that control free radical production and underlie poor glucose tolerance, cell death, and cell repair. All crucial to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes.